Selasa, 24 April 2012


Syed Farid Alatas
Muslim revival has been studied mainly as a modern phenomenon and as a reaction to
Western imperialism and colonialism, and the modernization of the Muslim world. Muslim
revival, however, is a much older phenomenon that dates back to the first century of Islam,
which saw the first extremist groups to emerge in the Muslim world. An important
theoretical resource for the study of Muslim revival is the work of ‘Abd al-Rahman Ibn
Khaldun. While Ibn Khaldun is well-known in both the Muslim world and the West, he has
been seen more of a precursor of the various modern social sciences and as source of
historical data and information, rather than as a resource for the development of theoretical
perspectives. This paper introduces Ibn Khaldun’s theory of state formation as a theory of
Muslim revival founded on the concept of taghyir al-munkar and makes some remarks
concerning the relevance of this theory to the study of contemporary Muslim revival.
Mahmoud Dhaouadi
This paper makes a comparative analysis and discussion of the notion of social change in
Ibn Khaldun’s ‘umran science, on the one hand, and that of his counterparts among the
Founding Fathers of Western sociology, on the other. In this regard, many similarities and
differences are found between the author of the al-Muqaddimah and Comte, Marx,
Durkheim and Weber. As to the evolution of human societies, they did not, however, see
eye to eye. While the European sociologists saw human societies evolution in a linear
pattern, Ibn Khaldun found the evolution of Arab Muslim societies is cyclic in nature
Furthermore, Ibn Khaldun had found a strong link between the wide spread of extreme
materialism/luxury in Arab Muslim societies and their weakness and inevitable collapse.
This link is hardly found in the works of the Founding Fathers of Western sociology.
On the convergence side, both Ibn Khaldun and those Western sociologists agree that
social change is a necessary features of human societies which very often lead societies to
move from simple states to more complex ones: bedouin to sedentary, traditional to
modern , Gemeinschaft to Gesellchaft, etc.
M. Umer Chapra
The first part of this paper presents Ibn Khaldun’s multidisciplinary and dynamic
theory of development. This theory argues that the development or decline of an
economy or society does not depend on any one factor, but rather on the
interaction of moral, social, economic, political and historical factors over a long
period of time. One of these factors acts as the trigger mechanism and, if the
others respond in the same direction, development or decline gains momentum
through a chain reaction until it becomes difficult to distinguish the cause from
the effect. Part II of this paper applies this theory to Muslim countries to explain
their low performance.
Ali Çaksu
In this paper, by relying on the observations, theories and comments that are mentioned in
al-Muqaddimah, I will attempt to demonstrate how Ibn Khaldun perceived some Islamic
ideals, how he approached the relationships between the ideals and the realities, how he
dealt with the gaps, tensions and contradictions between them, and what kind of solutions
he found. In this study, which will be carried out with the help of several examples, I will
discuss firstly the relation between ‘asabiyyah and religion and then proceed with the
justification of phenomena such as ‘asabiyyah, which seem to be (or perhaps are) opposed
to Islamic ideals. This will be followed by a discussion of the impact of ‘asabiyyah on the
interpretation of some phenomena, developments and controversial events that appeared in
early Islamic history. The same will be done for mulk as well.
As a conclusion to the study, it will be put forward that Ibn Khaldun added richness and
depth to such concepts as ‘asabiyyah and mulk, bringing an alternative perspective to their
roles in history and monotheist religions, as well as using them as powerful but flexible
conceptual tools.
M. Akif Kayapınar
Why do states rise and fall? Why are some polities able to develop successful social and
political organizations, while others are not? Are polities sooner or later destined to collapse?
What is it that gives life to a polity? There have always been attempts to answer these and
related questions. Recently, however, the attempts seem to have intensified. The decline of the
explanatory power of earlier theoretical frameworks based particularly on the Enlightenment
approach seems to be the primary reason lying behind the interest in the rising interest of these
kind of historical-sociological researches. The weakening of the power of these frameworks,
in return, depends upon a comprehensive change taking place all around the world.
It is this cultural context that brought Abd al-Rahman Ibn Khaldun, the 14th century North
African Muslim historian and philosopher, to the fore in the circles of various social and
human sciences. Ibn Khaldun developed a comprehensive theory upon human
collectivities, at the center of which lies the rise and fall of states. The core parameter of
Ibn Khaldun’s social philosophy is ‘asabiyyah, without which no collective political
action is taken place. Despite its centrality, however, ‘asabiyyah has not been clearly
defined yet. It is, therefore, a must for us to understand and define ‘asabiyyah in a
productive way to be able to make use of Ibn Khaldun’s social philosophy in
understanding and explaining the transformations we undergo today.
Thus, throughout this paper I will look for the answers of three basic questions. In the first
place, what does it mean for a group to have ‘asabiyyah? Secondly, how ‘asabiyyah
comes into existence? Finally, what is ‘asabiyyah?
Defined in a comprehensive way, ‘asabiyyah would be a productive parameter in social
Yusuf Kaplan
This essay that adopts an inter-disciplinary methodology, including film theory and social
theory, consists mainly of two parts. In the first part, by taking its cue from cultural
anthropology, it tackles one of the more difficult question of the “understandability and
translatability of cultures”. It argues that it is very difficult to wholly and fully understand
the aura of Ibn Khaldun’s way of thinking by merely using the theoretically-limited and
historically-conditioned approaches of the secular western social sciences, and therefore it
examines these approaches and frameworks critically and analytically. In turn, it points out
that one can only understand and translate fully and correctly Ibn Khaldun’s aura through
taking the inclusivist conceptualisation of the whole tradition of Islamic thought and
civilization into consideration. In the second part, it shows the originality and the brilliant
contributions of Ibn Khaldun’s theories for the creation of a more imaginative and creative
Islamic thought. And finally it investigates the question of how Ibn Khaldun’s thought can
provide new possibilities and opportunities in creating a new conception of civilization.
Recep Şentürk
According to Ibn Khaldun (808/1406), a product of a society that experienced many
civilizations at one time, in his “National System” that was prepared on the basis of Islamic
jurisprudence, madaniyyah (civilization) and ‘umran (the nation) are synonymous concepts.
According to Ibn Khaldun, the world is in the shape of a globe; half of this globe is covered with
water while a large portion of the other half that forms the land is not conducive to settlement.
The people residing in the areas that are conducive to settlement, despite possessing some
different characteristics, have established civilizations which demonstrate similar behavior. Thus
Ibn Khaldun defined civilization as a “corporate social actor”, turning it into an individual
discipline, and studied the behavior and reactions of civilizations under different circumstances.
His investigations brought him to the conclusion that in the universal order civilizations
demonstrate similar behavior. In his own period, by studying existence and scientific thought, he
identified the avari‘a al-zatiyyah (shortcomings of the nation). Ibn Khaldun proposed a theory in
which civilization where civilization and inter-civilization relationships are propelled, on the one
hand, by internal dynamics, as well as, on the other, by external relational dynamics, which are
defined as change and conflict. According to this approach, civilizations do not show a linear
progression or regression; quite the contrary, they have a history full of rises and declines. In a
paradoxical manner many civilizations that have developed strongly weaken their ability to
defend themselves, opening the way to their collapse. If we approach the subject from a modern
perspective, how can we interpret the conflicts and disagreements that occur between modern
civilizations from the point of view of Ibn Khaldun’s theory of civilizations and inter-civilization
relationships, that is, the subject of the Science of Umran, and what can we say about the future
of relationships between civilizations? Our aim is to evaluate the concept of the future from Ibn
Khaldun’s perspective, starting from Samuel Huntington’s theory of the clash of civilizations
and then to look at the future anew from the perspective of Ibn Khaldun.
Cengiz Tomar
Ibn Khaldun is one of the most discussed thinkers in the modern Arab world. The most
important reasons for this are that he lived in a time of crisis that resembles the one that
Muslims find themselves in at the present time, that his thoughts have found approval
from Western scientists and that they possess modern characteristics. It is for these
reasons that the thoughts of Ibn Khaldun, from the 19th century on, have given rise to a
wide variety of interpretations, including pan-Islamism, nationalism, socialism and other
ideologies that have found interest in the Arab world. In this article, after examining the
heritage of thought bequeathed by Ibn Khaldun to Arab culture, starting from the time in
which he lived, we will try to evaluate interpretations of al-Muqaddimah in the modern
Arab world.
Semih Ceyhan
In this article we will analyze Ibn Khaldun’s approach to Sufism, a subject which he
included among the sciences and identified as being a science that appeared after the
advent of Islam. This analysis will be separated into two sections: history and thought. In
the first section the derivation of the Sufi thought of Ibn Khaldun as a historical
phenomenon, the period of recording (the issue of classification) and other matters of his
thought will be held to a problematical analysis. In the second section the topics and
problems of Ibn Khaldun’s Sufi thought will be examined. Subsequently, these two parts
will be analyzed in connection with one another. The analysis will develop around those
who came after the first period of Sufism, in particular Ibn Arabi and those seekers of the
truth who developed the topic further after him. In this way there Ibn Khaldun’s approach
to Sufism will be examined and critiqued.
Ejder Okumuş
As the Ottoman Empire began to “wane”, the statesmen, scholars, thinkers and historians
began to concentrate on the causes for this deterioration and started to investigate the
possible ways to halt it. Within this framework there is one man of science, one historical
philosopher, one sociologist who appears before us as having affected the ideas and been
of benefit to the statesmen, scholars, historians and thinkers, who even tried to warn the
Ottoman State via his theories of collapse – despite a few changes having been made to
his thought: Ibn Khaldun. A social theorist, Ibn Khaldun’s historical and social views were
a fundamental source to which thinkers turned in order to find a solution to the
“deterioration” and “collapse” of the Ottoman State. There is no doubt that Ibn Khaldun
had and continues to have an important effect on other thinkers, both Western and Eastern,
non-Muslim and Muslim. But, the topic of this study is the effect Ibn Khaldun had on
Ottoman thinkers. In this study the effect of Ibn Khaldun on Ottoman thought of some
Ottoman thinkers will be examined.
Ferhat Koca
That which gives Ibn Khaldun, a man who struggled in life, social and political arenas, his
claim to fame in the history of Islamic thought are the ideas put forward in the timeless
work al-Muqaddimah, in particular his original theories and thoughts on history and
sociology. Alongside of this, in the same work, he not only focuses on historical and
sociological matters, but also provides a variety of information on the qualities and
historical development of almost all basic Islamic sciences. One of the sciences about
which he put forward his thoughts is fiqh, or what we call today “Islamic jurisprudence”.
As well as providing information about fiqh, we can find some evaluations by Ibn
Khaldun of the sub-topics of faraid (inheritance law), the method of fiqh, and polemics.
Moreover, serving as an instructor in fiqh (as a muderrislik) in a number of madrasa in
Egypt, he himself, as head judge of the Maliki sect, made a contribution to the education
and instruction of fiqh as well as introducing some rulings. However, at this time, there
were people opposed to him who questioned his approach, particularly in connection with
his work on fiqh.
In this article we examine the work Ibn Khaldun carried out on fiqh, and particularly in the
work called Mukaddime, his thoughts and conclusions in connection with the history of
Islamic Law are evaluated, particularly that of his umran theory.
According to the information given in el-Ta‘rif bi-Ibn Khaldun wa rihlatuhu qarban ve
sharqan, a work that explains Ibn Khaldun’s own life, Ibn Khaldun received basic
religious training until the age of 18 and later began to work in politics and administration.
During this period of his basic education, he studied, as part of the curriculum of the
period and per tradition, the Qur’an, hadiths, Islamic jurisprudence, methods of
jurisprudence and Islamic philosophy, as well as studying rational sciences like
philosophy and logic. Among the works he read concerned with Islamic jurisprudence
were Imam Malik’s al-Muwatta, Sahnun’s al-Mudawwana, Asad b. al-Furat’s al-
Asadiyya, Utbi’s al-Utbiyya, Ibn al-Hajib’s al-Muhtasar and some of his commentaries,
Ibn Habib’s al-Wadiha, as well as other basic Maliki sources. Moreover, he worked as a
teacher of Islamic jurisprudence (mudarris) in the Qamhiyya and Barquqiyya (Zahiriye)
madrasas and as a head judge of the Maliki sect. In his work et Ta‘rif Ibn Khaldun does
not provide any information concerning the reasons why some were opposed to him as
head judge of the Maliki sect, but rather constantly accused them of being “creators of
defeatism and plotters”. In our opinion, Ibn Khaldun, along with other experts trained in
canonical law like al-Qayravani, Qadi al-Baqillani, Ibn Arabi, Qadi ‘Abdulwahhab, Abu
Walid al-Baji, Ibn Rushd el-Jadd, Ibn Rushd al-Hafid, Qadi Iyad, Ibn Hajib, Ibn Farhun
and al-Qarafi, was a great scholar; in addition to this, the education he received in fiqh and
his life-long experience were very wide and deep, giving him the ability to be the head
judge of the Maliki sect and enabling him to make many interpretations on the history of
Islamic law.
On the other hand, in the work al-Ta‘rif and al-Muqaddimah by Ibn Khaldun, from the
beginning of Islam to his own period he gives a great deal of information about the
development of the history of Islamic law and its literature. In particular, a great deal of
information concerned with the degeneration experienced in the organization of the yarqi
(provincial administration) in Egypt at the period in which he lived is given in al-
Muwatta, while in et-Ta‘rif there is information about the founder of the Maliki school,
Imam Malik. At the same time, while giving information about polemics in al-
Muqaddimah, he asserts that due to the selection of opinions, previous works and rational
evidence in the Islamic legal schools, that while the Hanafis used qiyas (arriving at a
judgment through comparison) in many of the secondary subjects and were, for this
reason, skilled at nazar (debate) and research, the Malikis, on the other hand, depended on
works and reports and therefore were not skilled at debate (ahl al-nazar). Moreover, he
says that many of the Malikis were from North Africa – and with few exceptions – were
Bedouins unaware of the arts of debate and discussion. Thus, in his evaluations on the
history of Islamic jurisprudence, Ibn Khaldun presents a great parallel to his ‘umran
Murteza Bedir
Studies that have examined Ibn Khaldun as a historian of Islamic civilization and his
famous work al-Muqaddimah have concentrated on subjects like his philosophy of history
and theory of society. However, alongside the observations and theories that Ibn Khaldun
put forward in these areas, he also worked in such areas as the creation and classification
of information; in this aspect he put forward contemporary interpretations that were not
only concerned with the development of science, but which were also related to the
situation in which the sciences existed at that time.
In this study we will examine first the concept of knowledge in the sources of Ibn
Khaldun’s social theory, and particularly how the sciences that were recorded in the name
of this concept affected, in a concrete way, his categorization of knowledge in what he
called the fundamental Islamic sciences. While evaluating these sciences, the method
developed by Ibn Khaldun will be given special emphasis, and how faithful he remained
to those sciences that he perceived as being concrete will be examined in these sections. In
this work we will investigate, from the point of view of the consequences, in what way Ibn
Khaldun’s methods of studying the history of civilizations can contribute to modern
Islamic thought and the concept of Islamic sciences. In a more abstract way, one of the
aims of this study consists of whether Ibn Khaldun’s approach can offer a perspective to
modern Muslims who are studying the history of fundamental Islamic sciences.
Ömer Türker
One of the distinguishing features, from a historical perspective of sciences, of the work
called al-Muqaddimah by Ibn Khaldun becomes apparent in the section where he
evaluates the scientific traditions and the scientific concept that were dominant in Islamic
society. In the section concerned with rational sciences, the historical journey of many
sciences, from metaphysics to grammar, will be examined as well as a discussion of this
latter part. The sciences that Ibn Khaldun examined will be evaluated from a scientific and
pragmatic approach. In connection with this, Ibn Khaldun not only established what the
benefit of a value confirming information that is expressed in a science was, but he also
developed the basis of sciences from a historical aspect. In Ibn Khaldun’s general
approach the science of Islamic philosophy (kalam) appears to be aimed at defense, and he
sees philosophy and kalam as consisting of different points of view; although no definite
knowledge is provided by natural sciences, he considers that they bring out pragmatic
values, with Sufism having theoretical and practical values. In our paper the general
approach of Ibn Khaldun is examined first, and secondly we examine his commentary and
determinations on rational sciences. In this study an evaluation will be made by
concentrating on the sayings of Ibn Khaldun and his perception of the rational sciences, in
particular his views on the relationship between the history and informational value of
metaphysics and the aim and existence of kalam; in addition the use of logic as an
instrument by Islamic philosophers, which brought about closer relations between kalam
and philosophy will be examined.
Tahsin Görgün
The analysis of existence in Ibn Khaldun’s Social Metaphysics, made while examining the
subject of ‘umran, can be expressed in short as “The Creation which Came into Existence
through the Acts of Mankind and as a Direct Reflection of God Almighty’s Power”; this
analysis has many important characteristics for both modern Turkey and the Islamic
world, and it is felt that it is needed in the search for Social Metaphysics. Just as this
analysis provides for the establishment of an accurate connection between religion and
life, as there is also a connection between the individual and society, society and
institutions and sciences and philosophy, it is an easier-to-understand and more acceptable
analysis than those made to date. In the paper the possibilities provided will be discussed
by comparing it with the theses of N. Hartmann, H. Freyer and J. Searle.
Yavuz Yıldırım
Ibn Khaldun occupies an important place among Islamic historians from the aspect of the
critical historical methodology he introduced. He criticized the Islamic historians who lived
before him for not reporting many events accurately and for not satisfactorily establishing
the cause-result relationship between events; he claimed that he was introducing a new
methodology that would ensure that these drawbacks would be eliminated. This
methodology has its own characteristic subjects and concepts. According to Ibn Khaldun, a
historian should be able to provide correct historical information by evaluating the historical
data available from a critical aspect, and should be able to analyze the causes and the effects.
The historian should be aware of the type of society (urban-rural), as well as the different
type of social structures, such as political, economic, geographic, religious, intellectual and
artistic. Thus, the historian will be able to be cognizant of both permanent and changeable
factors and will be able to establish, in a sound manner, the connection between cause and
effect. In addition to these, the personal characteristics of those reporting the historical
information should be analyzed. The historian can only arrive at and present correct
historical information by following such a method. The historical methodology presented by
Ibn Khaldun affected many historians and politicians.
L. Sunar – F. Yaslıçimen
Many things have been written on the sociological theories of Ibn Khaldun. Again, to the
same extent, his methodology and his different approaches have been studied by
comparing them with his work, Kitab al-‘Iber, from a historical point of view. But as
some of the sections in al-Muqaddimah are quite difficult and as there is a lack of
knowledge about the cultural and scientific history of the Mağrib, his contributions as a
scientific and philosophical historian, or more correctly as a metaphysicist, have been
overlooked and not examined as they should have been. Thus, for this reason, the overall
approach that follows his scientific methodology has been neglected. In particular, this
overall approach was put forward with Ibn Khaldun’s study of ‘umran. One of the greatest
problems encountered in trying to understand him today is that the work of Ibn Khaldun is
evaluated not within his own time, but rather in a modern context. To try to understand
Ibn Khaldun in the paradigm of existing social sciences is problematic, as the
disintegration of social sciences themselves is reflected in such an effort and results in a
non-integrated concept.
This paper will examine two basic problematics. The first of these is the thought presented
in Ibn Khaldun’s al-Muqaddimah and the methodology followed as a potential alternative
approach to the crisis of disintegration that is being experienced in modern social sciences.
The second problematic is the possibility of the ‘umran theory of Ibn Khaldun, who
thought that he was living in a period of decline, as a perspective that will allow
contemporary Muslims, who are in a similar decline, to once again write world history.
Şenol Korkut
In this paper the method proposed by Ibn Khaldun in the political arena, both in classic
political philosophy and in Islamic political thought, will be examined in its original
dimensions. The political philosophy that started with al-Farabi as a systematic style of
thought in Islamic thought used deduction as a mandatory part of the tradition belonging
to the philosopher, adopting the explanatory method in the framework of divine laws of
social events and facts; the demonstrative method was seen to be insufficient for matters
of human and infinite will, thus the matter was to be evaluated in the light of divine rules.
In one sense this is a journey from “description” to “depiction”. Ibn Khaldun stated that
this method remains insufficient to explain social phenomena and events, and widening
this perspective, indicated that political philosophy, in one sense, is compelled to present a
utopian social model, and departing from this point criticized al-Farabi as not being a
philosophical realist. At this point, the accusations made against the philosophers and his
approach to the criticism of civil political science are investigated as to whether or not Ibn
Khaldun approached political philosophy from a universal point of view, and if, while
making these accusations, the theories of the philosophers were taken into account. In this
situation, the modern philosophers try to explain what has to be, while Ibn Khaldun
explains what is; from this point of view Ibn Khaldun’s approach seems to be more
scientific. Secondly, in this paper different interpretations that have been made today on
the structure of the method put forward by Ibn Khaldun are examined, and which of these
methods is closest to the thought of Ibn Khaldun is scrutinized. Interpretations of which
intellectual tradition Ibn Khaldun belongs to in Islamic thought are given. Moreover,
starting with the political theories of al-Farabi, the philosophical heritage and its influence
of political doctrine is discussed.
Durmuş Hocaoğlu
The European Union is the most comprehensive political unification project, a unification
in which many states are incorporated of their own free will; the like of this has not been
seen to date. The fundamental idea of the European Union Project, which dates back to a
much earlier period, began to gain momentum after the destruction of World War II. At
first an economic union, the European Union has in recent years began to head towards
the formation of a federation similar to that of the USA.
However, confronting all this progress there are some serious problems that stand in the
way of becoming the “United States of Europe”. This article will try to contribute to the
efforts of the European Union to attain its vision by analyzing these problems from a
Khaldunistic perspective. In the real sense of the phrase, this project is lacking genetic
patriotism; in fact, it seems that it has adopted causal patriotism according to the
Khaldunistic concept. However, if the conjectural conditions are changed, will those
countries that have a causal patriotism in the European Union be able to be held in one
place? Will the deeply-rooted conflicts that exist between the causal patriotic European
nations be eliminated? Between the genetic patriotism and the “European Causal
Patriotism” will future conflicts which are deeply rooted perhaps open the way to a tragic
disintegration of the Union?
The second matter that will be examined is a critical examination of the European
society’s social, cultural, spiritual and moral makeup from a Khaldunistic view. Were a
United States of Europe to be established, it is possible even now to demonstrate some
characteristic symptoms that anticipate the degeneration of societies. If one examines the
decrease in willingness to work, the disintegration of the work ethic and discipline, the
increase in the movement towards less work and more holidays, the reduction in
population, the move towards irreligiousness, innovations towards a “Post-Christian
Europe”, the legitimization of incest, pedophilia and other extreme immoral behavior, the
disintegration of family ties, if all of these are examined from a Khaldunistic perspective,
it leads one to think that this continent is coming face to face with a crisis of serious
Taghi Azadarmaki
This article attempts to demonstrate Ibn Khaldun’s presence, thoughts, and works. Despite
the fact that he lived in the 14th and 15th centuries, his thoughts are appropriate for
discussion in the 20th century and have become a source of scientific and political
judgments. This article examines the evolution and importance of two intellectual
traditions: Iranology and Returning to Self-Ego. In the first phase, the depiction of his
thoughts arises from the rational and political paradigm and the tradition of Iranology
through an interaction with Western development. In other words Ibn Khaldun’s thoughts
were created with regard to Western development. Ibn Khaldun’s thoughts are of
importance in that they explain the reason for Iran’s moving away from the historical
perspective rather than their following their evolution, development and thus achieving a
better status. With regard to the rational tradition of returning to the self-ego, it can be
claimed that Ibn Khaldun’s thoughts are applied for the reintroduction of the historical
past rather than a move toward the future.

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